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#5 (67), 2018

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Arms Trade

A New Trend In Ukrainian Arms Trade: An Eye On Russia

Valentin Badrak

Center for Army, Conversion and Disarmament Studies (CACDS)

Ukraine's general military-technical coopera­tion (MTC) strategy did not change noticeably in 2001-2002. Valeriy Shmarov,1 the new general director of the key Ukrainian state arms exporter Ukrspetsexport, has defined it quite clearly: Ukraine will be stepping up it's export of arms and military hardware to coun­tries of the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the CIS. He added that his state-owned company pursues a two-tier export policy: firstly, it is mapping out a long-term balanced and well-planned strategy for entering certain markets, secondly, it is taking energetic tactical steps to promote specific products2. "We mean to boost the sales volume of ready-made goods, including their maintenance, warranty services and re­pairs, as well as scientifically-intensive oriented products and technologies," stated Shmarov.

In 2002, Ukrainian arms exporters expect to increase the volume of export. According to the First Deputy Secretary of the Ukrainian National Security and Defense Council, head of the Committee on Military-Technical Cooperation and Export Control to the Ukrainian president Leonid Rozen, Ukrainian arms exports in 2001 grew 15% against 2002, with 70% of the exports originating in the domestic defense industry. "Our forecast for this year is no smaller. Even though several limitations are possible. They stem from the anti-terrorist operation and the need to take into account this situation, in which the United States has ascribed a number of countries to the "axis of evil". We should also bear in mind our Euro-Atlantic aspirations; they may also lead to certain restrictions in exports. This is not a question of bans, but of respect for the interests of the Euro-Atlantic community," Rozen said.

According to official reports, in 2001, Ukraine exported military and dual-purpose goods amounting to approximately $500 million. Valeriy Shmarov is also convinced that in 2002 military exports will not go down, as compared against last year3.

In general MTC issues are classified in Ukraine, and there is no practice of making reports to parliament. However, one can learn about some of the deals involving Ukraine from the press.

Ukraine on regional arms markets

Europe

Ukraine's performance on European markets cannot be described as being on par with its potential. After full-scale integration into the Western info structure, many former partners from the former socialist camp regard MTC with Ukraine rather skeptically4.

Only a $97 million contract with Greece for the delivery of two Zubr small landing hovercraft, signed by Ukrspetsexport in 2000, stands out among European deals. It is believed that Ukraine's MTC with Greece may develop quite dynamically and vary from direct sales to technology transfers and offset deals. However, even though in addition to the hovercraft, Ukraine could have delivered engines for Greek APCs and Transport Ministry motor boats, as well as upgrade its BMP-1 combat vehicles5, the future of MTC between the two countries largely depends on the delivery schedule of the second Zubr, the hull of which was not accepted by the Greek side, and in October 2002 still remained at the shipyard in Feodosia. What makes this factor even more important is that Russia - on September 14, 2002 - signed an additional contract for the delivery of the third vessel to the Greek Navy in 20046. At the same time the General Designer of the Almaz Central Design Bureau (St. Petersburg) Alexander Shlyakhtenko has admitted that 40% of the components of the Zubr Russia is going to deliver to Greece, will be Ukrainian-made7. Among others, he named five gas turbines, for which the Russian side signed a $10 million contract with the Zorya Production Association (Mykolayev) in October 2002.

In 2001 Ukraine transferred 61 units of military hardware to Macedonia: 31 T-72A tanks, 10 BMP-2 fighting vehicles, six BM-21 Grad MLRS, a Su-25 ground attack aircraft and a10 M-24 assault helicopters8. However, under Western pressure Ukraine had to suspend MTC with Macedonia for some time. The general chiefs of staff of the two countries armies agreed, in Kiev, in January 2002, that Ukraine would help the Macedonian army upgrade its armaments and military hardware. They also negotiated the opening of a tank maintenance center. Undoubtedly, this MTC direction is strategically important for Ukraine, but developments have shown that NATO and the EU countries apply double standards to Ukraine in this respect. This has prompted Ukraine to fully shift its attention in MTC to the East.

Since 1997 Ukraine has been actively working to win NATO support in receiving orders. It pins its main hopes to orders for upgrading T-72 tanks from the armies of some NATO countries. Representatives of Ukraine and NATO have held three meetings on the issue and mulled Ukraine's proposal to involve NATO partner countries in the project9. One more joint meet­ing will be held shortly with countries having T-72 tanks. If such a decision is made, it will undoubtedly be political and may be regarded as compensation to Ukraine for its renunciation of the lucrative Bushehr contract with Iran.

In 1999-2000 the Ukrainian State Ship-Building Research and Design Center, together with the Black Sea Ship-Building Plant, worked out rec­ommendations on the guaranteeing of fire and explosion safety on advanced NATO frigates. The work is expected to continue. A representa­tive of the shipbuilding center has been in­cluded in a permanent NATO group for naval shipbuilding that analyzes corresponding pro­grams, research and design operations conducted along NATO lines. This permits the center to be in the know of all the latest developments in the sector and get access to NATO data.

In the framework of the Ukrainian-Russian Me­dium Transport Aircraft consortium Ukraine in­tends to deliver An-70 military-transport air­craft to the Czech Republic. Under an April 2002 agreement between Russia and the Czech Republic, three An-70s will be jointly built by the AVIANT Kiev State Aviation Plant and the Polyot Production Association in Omsk, and transferred to the Czech side by way of a pay­ment of Russian debts probably by 2005-2006. The Ukrainian contribution to the project will amount to around 45% with the price of each aircraft standing around $65 million. The con­sortium also has 18 other potential buyers including India, China, Iran, Algeria, Canada, South Africa and several Southeast Asian nations.

At the same time some Western companies are considering joint operations with Ukraine in third markets. The Swiss RUAG company, which makes ammunition and delivery systems, serves as an example. It has voiced intentions to set up an ammunition manufacturing joint venture in Ukraine10.

Under another joint project, the serial upgrading of the L-39U combat trainer should be organized in 2003, after getting the consent of the designer - the Czech Aero Vodochody. Belarus, India, Ethiopia, Angola and other countries possessing such trainers have shown interest.

USA

MTC with the United States amounts mainly to technical assistance to Ukraine. Thus, the Ukrainian Air Transport Company of the Ukrainian Defense Ministry has won a tender for the disposal of 31 strategic bombers (12 Tu-22M3 and 19 Tu-22M2) and also 225 air-borne X-22 (AS-4) cruise missiles. The final decision was made after the American government assigned funds for the project.

The bombers and cruise missiles are disposed under the December 19, 1990 CFE Treaty (Article 9), and the October 25, 1993 Ukrainian-US agreement on assistance to Ukraine in scrapping strategic nuclear arms and on the prevention of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the June 31, 1991 START treaty, the December 5,1993 agreement between the Ukrainian Defense Ministry and the U.S. Defense Department on the provision of Ukraine with materiel, services and corresponding personnel training in connection with the elimination of strategic nuclear arms, the comprehensive program of stage-by-stage reduction and liquidation of Tu-95MS and Tu-160 strategic aircraft stationed in Ukraine adopted by the presidential ordinance of 14.05.1998 and other corresponding documents. The bombers and missiles are to be disposed of in 22 months.

Also within the framework of US military assistance, in October 2002, the Ukrainian border service received 160 radio stations11. At the end of April 2002 Ukraine completed the delivery of some 2 mln gas masks made at a Chemical Fiber Plant in Cherkassy to the United States for about $14.5 mln12.

Middle East

In 2002, Ukraine, together with Poland, built a medium landing ship for Yemen. The Ukrainian contribution amounted to artillery and gun-firing systems13 for it.

In January 2001, Ukraine officially opened its embassy in Libya. At the same time, Ukraine and Libya signed bilateral agreements on air traffic, and the promotion and mutual protection of investments. Libya submitted to Ukrainian officials a list of commodities and services it wanted to import from Ukraine. The second most important person in Libya, a member of the Revolutionary Command, secretary of the Main Provisional Administration of the Supreme Defense Council Lt. Gen. Abu Baker Yunes Jaber visited Ukraine on September 11-17, 2001. Ukrainian exports to Libya in 2001 totaled $86 mln. Partial payment of the 2000 contract for the delivery of two An-124-100 Ruslan aircraft constituted approximately one third of the sum. Given the interest of Libyans in Ukrainian aircraft, the Ukrainian Cabinet, in February 2002, gave orders to sign an agreement on cooperation in aircraft-making with Libya. Among other things the agreement provides for the involvement of the Motor-Sich company from Zaporozhye in the repair of aircraft engines and the Antonov ANTK aircraft complex in the designing of a civilian passenger liner and repairing aircraft. The transfer deed on the second An-124-100 Ruslan aircraft assembled at the AVIANT Kiev State Aviation Plant was signed on October 10, 2002. The first aircraft was delivered to Libya in 200114.

Ukraine has shown interest in participating in the humanitarian de-mining effort in Southern Lebanon. It set up a corresponding institution that is training personnel. It also took part in a tender for mine clearing in Southern Lebanon. Even though Britain won it, the 90 sappers from Zimbabwe hired by the British company Mineteck, have hit mines three times already15. Some experts believe that Ukraine has a chance of joining the de-mining effort because a 650 person strong Ukrainian peacekeeping engineer battalion has been staying in Southern Lebanon since July 2000, and the sappers have won a high reputation as professionals. They have cleared more mines than representatives of all other countries taken together have. Under an agreement between the Defense Ministry and Ukroboronservice (a subsidiary of Ukrspetsexport) on July 17, 2002, 75 Ukrainian civilian sappers left for Lebanon for preliminary verification of minefields.

Africa

The African market is a traditional zone of Ukrainian presence. Attempts to get a foothold on the South African high tech market are a new promising direction for the Ukrainian arms trade in Africa. Actually, after difficulties with the delivery of components to an icebreaker sold to that country in the mid-1990s, the steps taken by the heads of several Ukrainian defense plants can be described as quite successful. Thus, Ukrainian aircraft and ammunition manufacturers participated in the Africa Aerospace & Defense-2002 international show in South Africa. The Kharkov State Aviation Production Enterprise signed contracts to repair L-410 aircraft for South Africa and Botswana16. The sum of the contracts has not been disclosed, but the Tora plant belonging to the Kharkov enterprise is known to have been placed in charge of the repairs. It is the former Civil Aviation Plant #420 in Kharkov that has the facilities to repair L-410 of different modifications, including the most advanced L-410 UVP-E. Even though the contracts are relatively modest, they are fundamentally important because they revive a promising market of aircraft repairs. Besides, as many as 2,500-3,000 such Czech-made planes are currently used in different parts of the world, including South and North America, Africa and Asia.

The February 2002 contract for the construction of ferries and a floating dock for Gambia is another example of entering absolutely new markets in the region. The contract carried out by the Kiev Ship-Building and Repair Plant resulted from understandings, reached in 2001 by the presidents of the two countries, on advancing bilateral trade and economic relations and also the February 2002 working visit of the Gambian foreign minister to Ukraine. Even though the contract is not directly related to MTC it indicates Ukraine's intentions to systemically advance new equipment on the African market and develop new delivery patterns. It is also an indication of more energetic support from Ukraine's top leadership in the efforts of domestic manufacturers of arms and dual-purpose goods to enter new strategic markets.

South Asia

In the past three years Pakistan along with Russia has been Ukraine's key partner in MTC with several new contracts being added to the implemented tank deal. The performance of Ukrainian exporters on the Pakistani market in 2002 proves that the forecasts of Ukrainian experts about the sizes of potential orders from Pakistan in 2001-2005 (about $1 billion) are beginning to materialize. The military operation of the anti-terrorist coalition in Afghanistan caused losses to Ukraine in a number of other markets in the Middle East, not just in Pakistan. Nevertheless, the Progress company (a subsidiary of Ukrspetsexport) has reached several new agreements17.

Back in 2001, Ukrainian mediators agreed to set up a base for maintenance services and repairs of the tanks delivered to Pakistan, which earned the Ukraine about $10 mln. Through Progress, the Malyshev Plant State Enterprise (Kharkov) signed a $100 mln contract for the delivery of 285 engine/transmittion kits for Pakistani Al Khalid main battle tanks over a period of three years18. The kits were jointly designed by the Morozov Design Bureau and Kharkov Engine-Building Design Bureau and include a 1,200 hp 6TD-2 engine capable of developing a velocity of 65 km/h. The engine guarantees optimal operation without the loss of capacity in temperatures reaching 55 degrees Centigrade. In the summer of 2001 the Malyshev plant delivered 15 kits to Islamabad.

Ukrainian experts on the arms business are sure that among the most promising projects for Ukraine is the delivery of new air defense systems (their testing on Pakistani territory ended in the summer of 2002), high precision systems and the participation in a major naval project, concerning organizing the production of Pakistani frigates. Ukraine might be asked to design a war ships and/or deliver gas turbines, acoustic, and radar systems for it19.

However, Ukraine has also suffered losses on the same market: it missed out on the order for the upgrading of Chinese-made T-59 tanks. Kiev also lost the tender for the delivery of four military transport aircraft, when Pakistan chose the S-235 aircraft of the Spanish CASA, not the Ukrainian An-32.

Despite its traditional orientation towards Russia, India has also been showing interest in MTC with Ukraine. During the official visit of Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma to Delhi on October 2-5, 2002, the head of the Ukrspetsexport company, Valeriy Shmarov, announced Ukraine's intentions to boost the volume of arms trade with India from $40 mln to $80 mln within a year. Several memorandums were signed in Delhi with the leadership of the Indian Armed Forces in cooperation on specific projects. According to Shmarov, India was interested in the involvement of Ukrainian experts in upgrading its air defense and also in the acquisition of Ukrainian air defense radar.

Southeast Asia

A key trend on the Southeast Asian market has been a significant increase in China's purchases of Ukrainian arms and special services: aircraft and aircraft components as well as repairs of Soviet-made aircraft earlier delivered to China.

A contract for the delivery of Ukrainian Kolchuga passive target detection radar to China was signed at the beginning of 200220. The same year, Beijing should receive four Kolchuga radars that will constitute one full system.

Aviation remains the main sphere of Ukrainian-Chinese MTC. The Antonov ANTK aircraft complex may sign a new contract this year for An-74TK-3000 aircraft deliveries to China21. To date there is a letter of intent signed by China on the acquisition of two such aircraft and the possible purchase of five more. Antonov has fulfilled one of its commitments to its Chinese partners by obtaining an AP-25 flight worthiness certificate this year.

In February 2002, reports emerged about one more aviation contract: the Motor-Sich engine-maker signed a $30 mln contract22 for the delivery of aircraft engines along with maintenance services "to a Southeast Asian country." Most experts believe this country is China.

In 2001, the Kvant-Radiolokatsia radar system Research Institute exported 50% of its output, namely equipment "for improving air defense system parameters," and this was delivered primarily to China and South Korea23. In addition, the Iskra Electrical Engineering Works signed an agreement for the delivery of radar to China in 2003-200424. Ukraine and China also have an agreement on organizing the repairs of radar equipment in China under a Ukrainian license. The radar maintenance and repair facility has already been founded.

The Ukrainian State Ship-Building Research and Design Center has entered the stage of pre-contract talks with Chinese companies on several new orders25, namely the development of advanced ships for the Chinese Navy and also individual types of armaments and military hardware. Its director Yevgeny Borisov has said China is the main foreign partner and client of his center. Earlier the center carried out naval orders for Vietnam and Poland.

China has also shown interest in Ukrainian engineering equipment. The Luhanskteplovoz State Holding Company has reported that, in the summer of 2002, a Chinese military delegation studied the possibilities of purchasing two types of engineering equipment26.

The CIS and Baltic states

The geopolitical changes of the past few years aroused hopes for a rise in the number of orders from countries of the former Soviet Union, primarily the Baltic states, Georgia, Azerbaijan and, to some extent, Uzbekistan.

The Ukrainian Aerotekhnika company is known to have equipped three Turkmen air defense centers with automated systems, and Ukroboronservice, a subsidiary of Ukrspetsexport, is repairing and partly upgrading the Turkmen MiG-29 air superiority fighters.

In October 2002, three patrol boats of the Kalkan-M type built at the More Production Association (Feodosia) were delivered to Turkmenistan. By now, a total of four Kalakans have been delivered to Turkmenistan. The decision to build Grif and Kalkan patrol boats in exchange for Turkmen natural gas deliveries was made in May 2001, during the visit of Turkmen President Saparmurad Niyazov to Ukraine. Initially the More Production Association was expected to deliver ten 40-tonne Grif patrol boats and 10 8-tonne Kalakans. However, due to the ill-devised patterns of Ukrainian payments for gas deliveries Ashhabad decided to order only four Kalkans. If the problem is resolved, the order may again be raised to 10 units. The factory price of the boats has not been disclosed, however, experts say similar foreign-made boats cost $400,000-425,000.

The Nikolayev Aircraft Repair Plant (NARP) in September 2002 received orders for the overhauling of two Su-24 frontline bombers of the Azerbaijani Air Force27. Kazakhstan has also started showing interest in Ukrainian aircraft. Hence, on September 27, 2002 the Kharkov State Aviation Production Enterprise signed a pre-contract agreement on the delivery of six An-140 aircraft for the Air Berkut company in Kazakhstan. The price of the new Ukrainian serial medium-distance plane is fixed at $8.5 million for Ukraine, Russia and Iran28.

This year the Defense Ministries of Ukraine and Armenia have signed a five-year military cooperation agreement29 under which the sides will cooperate in international security and defense, military development, army reform and procurements.

Cooperation with Russia

Ukraine still maintains the highest level of MTC with Russia. Under a recently adopted resolution of the Ukrainian Cabinet "On the delivery of technical equipment of RS-18 articles to the Russian Federation" the Ukrainian National Space Agency was permitted to deliver the hardware of RS-18 (SS-19 Stiletto) ICBMs stored in Ukraine to Russia on a commercial basis30. The missiles were manufactured in the 1980s at the Khrunichev plant in Moscow, remained in storage, and did not belong to the strategic grouping deployed in Ukraine. Later they became part of the stocks of the Ukrainian National Space Agency. The missiles will be transferred to Russia through Ukrspetsexport that will define the size, price and terms of delivery.

The tendency to the rapid rapprochement of positions and the appearance of prerequisites for the unification of financial-industrial groups has been a distinctive feature of Ukrainian-Russian MTC in the past few years. Thus, Vyacheslav Bohuslayev, the head of Motor-Sich, one of the most successful Ukrainian defense facilities, stressed the need for closer cooperation between Ukrainian and Russian aircraft-builders at a meeting of Ukrainian aircraft-builders with the presidents of Ukraine and Russia in October 2002.

It can be added that Motor-Sich is actively preparing to implement a program of developing helicopter production in Ukraine under Russian license. It also supplies newly made helicopters as well as the existing helicopter fleet with engines. In the autumn of 2002, Motor-Sich will make the first four VK-1500 engines and ship them to the Polyot Production Association in Omsk for installation in An-3 aircraft and for the corresponding flight tests. Engines from Zaporozhye are also expected to propel the new Russian combat trainer Yak-130 and the Ka-50 Black Shark helicopter.

Component deliveries to Russian arms manufacturers have significantly grown, and the list of Ukrainian plants that can deliver their output to Russia without a license from Ukrainian Committee for Military Technical Cooperation Policy and Export Control has expanded.

Concrete decisions are necessary on the merger with or acquisition of Ukrainian defense industry facilities by Russian companies. The Russian side has repeatedly made it clear that, despite the existing competition, it is ready for closer cooperation with Ukraine. Russian-Ukrainian cooperation in rocketry is a positive example of such unification. Thus, the efforts of Ukrainian experts to extend the service life of R-36M (SS-18 Satan) and RT-23 (SS-24 Scalpel) ICBMs paved the way for more serious projects in this sphere as well as for the use of space vehicles for military purposes. This year has also seen signs of the appearance of Russian business in the Ukrainian defense industry - the Russian Vneshtorgbank was given permission to service Ukrainian arms contracts.

There is also an evident rapprochement between the main players in the arms businesses of the two countries31. The Ukrainian Urkspetsexport and the Russian FSUE Rosoboronexport have agreed to set up a joint arms trade coordination center32.

In 2002 the situation has been changing very fast, and the mutual penetration of the defense industries of the two countries has become so deeply rooted that even Ukraine's political decision to join Euro-Atlantic institutions had little impact on the process.

In the opinion of Ukrspetsexport head Valeriy Shmarov, the main limitation which Ukraine faces in the development of its arms export sector is the shortage of financial resources. The survival of the national export potential should be promoted by33:

·   joint projects for developing new military hardware and upgrading the existing weaponry, which should employ a large number of existing scientific findings,

·   the organization of joint production in the client country permitting such a country to master technologies, equipment and documentation over a short period of time.

Conclusions

Thus, an analysis of the system of Ukrainian military-technical cooperation with foreign countries in 2001-2002 shows the following trends:

·   Ukraine continues to rely primarily on small contracts and deliveries of assembly parts. An important tendency is increasing the share of exports of new military hardware and dual-purpose goods and services, which constituted no less than 70% of all exports in 2001. Deliveries of aircraft engines and components are an important part of Ukrainian exports of military and dual-purpose goods, while the repairs and upgrading of aircraft and components are an important part of export services.

·   The geography of arms exports has not changed greatly. Southeast Asia and the Middle East remain the key areas for Ukraine. At the same time, in 2001, it increased its presence in the CIS markets compared to previous years due to a number of factors, which include, above all, the development of long-term arms modernization programs in some countries, the strengthening of authoritarian regimes, growing outside threats and continuing military-political confrontations.

·   Progress has been the greatest in Russian-Ukrainian MTC. Ukrainian defense companies are already involved in the fulfillment of a Russian state defense contract while Ukrainian arms modernization programs are implemented almost solely in partnership with Russia. In addition, several Ukrainian research institutes are conducting research for Russia. About one third of Ukrainian exports of weapons and military technology as well as, special and dual-purpose goods, go to Russia.

·   There was no significant rise in Ukrainian arms exports last year due to tightening competition after 2000 and to the limited capabilities of Ukraine on the world arms market. Ukrainian arms exports in 2002 are unlikely to exceed 2001 volumes. The main reason is the decline in space services in 2002. The other reasons may be the pressure the media and international organizations have been exerting on Ukraine for its cooperation with a number of countries (primarily those that the United States has assigned to the "axis of evil") and the growing government control resulting from the decision to join Euro-Atlantic institutions and consequently play on the world arms market according to European rules. The anti-terrorist effort in Afghanistan also had a negative impact on Ukraine's arms exports.

·   The main prospects of Ukrainian arms exports in the next few years may involve expanded presence on the aviation market, thanks to the An-70, An-140, An-74TK-300 and An-148 aircraft projects with Russia34 and on the market of space services35, thanks to the implementation of a new project of joint launches of modernized Cyclone-4 launch vehicles with Brazil and possibly with Argentina.

·   Ukraine is tightening government control over arms trade and the operations of all local players in the business. It is possible, but hardly likely, that the number of special exporters will be changed or the structure of Ukrspetsexport streamlined. Therefore, primarily due to the pressure of the international community Ukraine's earlier intentions to intensify economic cooperation with countries that are commonly described as critical - Iran, Libya and Syria - will not materialize. Ukraine is also pressured to make an inventory and develop a system of national marking of stocks of small arms inherited from the Soviet Union. Such steps would rid Ukraine of the burden of numerous unjustified accusations, but the Ukrainian military have estimated that this would require heavy spending - about $35-40 million.

·   Ukrainian arms exports are hurt by the tightening of competition on post-Soviet arms markets and the attempts of other suppliers to seize traditional Ukrainian markets. The Czech Republic, Bulgaria and Israel are actively expanding cooperation with Georgia, while the revival of military-technical ties between Washington and Islamabad signifies the loss of part of the Pakistani market for Ukraine. By selling a batch of Mi-17 helicopters to Pakistan, Russia started an offensive on a traditional Ukrainian market. Russia has also announced intentions to expand exports to countries where Ukraine trying to promote its defense goods and services - Malaysia, Algeria, Vietnam and several others. The very list of the new Ukrainian armaments is one-sided and consists mainly of units and components, while the share of finished products is too small. The Ukrainian defense industry requires heavy investment. Experts believe that the expansion of MTC with Russia and China can significantly improve the situation, in particular the formation of joint financial-industrial groups with Russia, the sale of stakes in several defense plants to foreign investors and the admission of private capital to the national defense industry.


Table 1. Ukraine's arms export in 2001

Category

Final importer State(s)

Number of items

Comments on the transfer

Battle tanks

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

31 T-72

   

Armored combat vehicles

United Arab Emirates

1 BTR-94 K

 

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

22 BTP-80

   

11 BMP-2

     

Chad

24 BTR-80

   

United States of America

1 BMP-2

   

Burundi

10 BTR-80

   

Large caliber artillery systems

United States of America

12S1

 

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

6 BM-21

   

Combat aircraft

Russian Federation

1 L-39

Demilitarized

Estonia

16 L-39

Demilitarized

 

United States of America

6 L-39

Demilitarized

 

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

1 Su-27P

   

Lithuania

1 Su-15TM (Flagon)

Demilitarized, for exhibit

 

1 MiG-21SM (Fishbed J)

Demilitarized, for exhibit

   

1 MiG-23MLD (Flogger K)

Demilitarized, for exhibit

   

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

3 Su-25 (Frogfoot)

   

1 Su-25UB (Frogfoot B)

     

Attack helicopters

Angola

2 Mi-24 (Hind)

 

Sri Lanka

4 Mi-24 (Hind)

   

Guinea

2 Mi-8MT (Hip H)

   

Equatorial Guinea

2 Mi-24 (Hind)

   

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

12 Mi-24 (Hind)

   

4 Mi-8MT (Hip H)

     

Algeria

12 Mi-24 (Hind)

   

Chad

2 Mi-24 (Hind)

   

Missiles and missile launchers

Russian Federation

6 X-55 (AS-15)

 

United States of America

5 X-31 (AS-17)

   

China

200 R-27 (AA-10)

   

Source: Ukraine's report to the UN Register on Conventional Arms, 14.10.2002, disarmament.un.org. Table is prepared by CAST.


1 V. Shmarov was appointed to his post by a presidential decree of June 12, 2002. His predecessor V. Maliev was killed in a car crash on March 6, 2002.

2 V. Shmarov's interview with Aviatsiya I Vremya magazine #59, 2002.

3 A briefing of Ukrspetsexport during the third Aviasvit-21 international aerospace show in Kiev, 16.09.2002

4 For instance, even Poland, which champions Ukraine in NATO and praises the quality of Ukrainian military cargo aircraft, placed an order with the Spanish CASA.

5 Defense-Express, 8.11.2001.

6 News conference with the director for special missions of FSUE Rosoboronexport Nikolai Demidyuk, 2.10.2002. Under the previous contract (2000), Russia was supposed to deliver two Zubr hovercraft to Greece.

7 Defense-Express, 2.10.2002.

8 The information is stated in the Macedonian report to the UN Register of Conventional Arms in 2001.

9 Deputy Assistant to NATO Secretary General Daniel Speckhard made the statement speaking to Ukrainian journalists, 18.07.2002.

10 Defense-Express, 25.09.2002.

11 Defense-Express, 09.10,2002.

12 Defense-Express, 07.05.2002.

13 Defense-Express, 08.05.2002.

14 Defense-Express, 10.10.2002.

15 Defense-Express, 03.07.2002.

16 The general director of the association Pavlo Naumenko disclosed this to Defense-Express on 27.09.2002. He said the contract was signed after talks during the Africa Aerospace & Defense-2002 exhibition.

17 Trade turnover between Ukraine and Pakistan plummeted by the end of 2002, and according to the Pakistani ambassador to Ukraine Shamun Alam Khan, amounted merely to $20 mln.

18 UNIAN, 09.07.2002.

19 Zerkalo nedeli, 17.08.2002.

20 Ukrinform government agency, 31.01.2002.

21 Press conference of deputy general director of the Antonov ANTK aircraft complex Oleksandr Kiva during the Aviasvit-21 international aerospace show in Kiev, 16.09.2002.

22 Ukrinform government agency, 11.02.2002.

23 Newspaper 2000, 07.12.2001.

24 Defense-Express, 11.10.2002.

25 Ukrinform government agency, 24.07.2002.

26 Defense Express, 27.06.2002.

27 Defense Express, 12.09.2002.

28 Disclosed by an association director in an interview with Defense-Express, 27.09.2002.

29 Defense Express, 10.10.2002.

30 Space-Inform agency, 11.09.2002.

31 Ukrspetsexport and Rosoboronexport sell up to 90% of armaments and military hardware in their respective countries.

32 Aviatsia, kosmos, vooruzheniya, 16-19.2002.

33 Ukrspetsexport briefing during the Aviasvit-21 international aerospace show in Kiev, 16.09.2002.

34 For instance, in 2001, Ukrainian aircraft plants made 12 aircraft on order, which were four more than in 2000. ITAR-TASS, quoting a source on the Ukrainian delegation at the ILA-2002 international air show, 13.05.2002

35 In the past 10 years, Ukraine has made 65 launches, taking 124 spacecraft from different countries into space.


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